用ASP.NET加密Cookie数据

文章来源:教学科研网络中心      发布于:2016-11-29      浏览量:135

Cookie确实在WEB应用方面为访问者和编程者都提供了方便,然而从安全方面考虑是有问题的,首先,Cookie数据包含在HTTP请求和响应的包头里透明地传递,也就是说聪明的人是能清清楚楚看到这些数据的。其次,Cookie数据以Cookie文件格式存储在浏览者计算机的cache目录里,其中就包含有关网页、密码和其他用户行为的信息,那么只要进入硬盘就能打开Cookie文件。图1是一个Cookie文件的内容:
如果你未曾留意你的机器里有Cookie文件,可以按下列方法查看:打开IE,选择“工具”菜单里的“Internet选项”,然后在弹出的对话框里点击“设置”按钮,在设置对话框里点击“查看”钮,就会打开一个窗口显示浏览器放在硬盘里的所有缓存数据,其中就有大量的Cookie文件。
所以奉劝大家不要将敏感的用户数据存放在Cookie中,要么就通过加密将这些数据保护起来。
在以前的ASP版本中没有加密的功能,现在.NET构架在System.Security.Cryptography命名空间里提供了许多加密类可以利用。
一、.NET的密码系统概要
简单地说,加密就是将原始字符(字节)串转变为完全不同的字符串的处理过程,达到原始字符无法破译的目的。这个处理过程是用另一个字符串(称为“密钥”),采取复杂的、混合的算法,“捣进”原始字符串。有时还使用一个称为“初始向量”的字符串,在密钥捣进之前先打乱目标字符串,预防目标字符串中较明显的内容被识破。加密的功效取决于所用密钥的大小,密钥越长,保密性越强。典型的密钥长度有64位、128位、192位、256位和512位。攻击者唯一的方法是创建一个程序尝试每一个可能的密钥组合,但64位密钥也有72,057,594,037,927,936种组合。
目前有两种加密方法:对称加密(或称私有密钥)和非对称加密(或称公共密钥)。对称加密技术的数据交换两边(即加密方和解密方)必须使用一个保密的私有密钥。非对称加密技术中,解密方向加密方要求一个公共密钥,加密方在建立一个公共密钥给解密方后,用公共密钥创建唯一的私有密钥。加密方用私有密钥加密送出的信息,对方用公共密钥解密。保护HTTP传输安全的SSL就是使用非对称技术。
我们对Cookie数据的加密采取对称加密法。.NET构架从基本的SymmetricAlgorithm类扩展出来四种算法:
·System.Security.Cryptography.DES
·System.Security.Cryptography.TripleDES
·System.Security.Cryptography.RC2
·System.Security.Cryptography.Rijndael
下面将示范DES和TripleDES算法。DES的密钥大小限制在64位,但用于Cookie的加密是有效的。TripleDES完成了三次加密,并有一个较大的密钥位数,所以它更安全。使用那一种算法不仅要考虑加密强度,还要考虑Cookie的大小。因为加密后的Cookie数据将变大,并且,密钥越大,加密后的数据就越大,然而Cookie数据的大小限制在4KB,这是一个必须考虑的问题。再者,加密的数据越多或算法越复杂,就会占有更多的服务器资源,进而减慢整个站点的访问速度。
二、创建一个简单的加密应用类
.NET的所有加密和解密通过CryptoStream类别来处理,它衍生自System.IO.Stream,将字符串作为以资料流为基础的模型,供加密转换之用。下面是一个简单的加密应用类的代码:
Imports System.Diagnostics
Imports System.Security.Cryptography
Imports System.Text
Imports System.IO
Public Class CryptoUtil
'随机选8个字节既为密钥也为初始向量
Private Shared KEY_64() As Byte = {42, 16, 93, 156, 78, 4, 218, 32}
Private Shared IV_64() As Byte = {55, 103, 246, 79, 36, 99, 167, 3}
'对TripleDES,采取24字节或192位的密钥和初始向量
Private Shared KEY_192() As Byte = {42, 16, 93, 156, 78, 4, 218, 32, _
15, 167, 44, 80, 26, 250, 155, 112, _
2, 94, 11, 204, 119, 35, 184, 197}
Private Shared IV_192() As Byte = {55, 103, 246, 79, 36, 99, 167, 3, _
42, 5, 62, 83, 184, 7, 209, 13, _
145, 23, 200, 58, 173, 10, 121, 222}
'标准的DES加密
Public Shared Function Encrypt(ByVal value As String) As String
If value <> "" Then
Dim cryptoProvider As DESCryptoServiceProvider = _
New DESCryptoServiceProvider()
Dim ms As MemoryStream = New MemoryStream()
Dim cs As CryptoStream = _
New CryptoStream(ms, cryptoProvider.CreateEncryptor(KEY_64, IV_64), _
CryptoStreamMode.Write)
Dim sw As StreamWriter = New StreamWriter(cs)
sw.Write(value)
sw.Flush()
cs.FlushFinalBlock()
ms.Flush()
'再转换为一个字符串
Return Convert.ToBase64String(ms.GetBuffer(), 0, ms.Length)
End If
End Function
'标准的DES解密
Public Shared Function Decrypt(ByVal value As String) As String
If value <> "" Then
Dim cryptoProvider As DESCryptoServiceProvider = _
New DESCryptoServiceProvider()
'从字符串转换为字节组
Dim buffer As Byte() = Convert.FromBase64String(value)
Dim ms As MemoryStream = New MemoryStream(buffer)
Dim cs As CryptoStream = _
New CryptoStream(ms, cryptoProvider.CreateDecryptor(KEY_64, IV_64), _
CryptoStreamMode.Read)
Dim sr As StreamReader = New StreamReader(cs)
Return sr.ReadToEnd()
End If
End Function
'TRIPLE DES加密
Public Shared Function EncryptTripleDES(ByVal value As String) As String
If value <> "" Then
Dim cryptoProvider As TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider = _
New TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider()
Dim ms As MemoryStream = New MemoryStream()
Dim cs As CryptoStream = _
New CryptoStream(ms, cryptoProvider.CreateEncryptor(KEY_192, IV_192), _
CryptoStreamMode.Write)
Dim sw As StreamWriter = New StreamWriter(cs)
sw.Write(value)
sw.Flush()
cs.FlushFinalBlock()
ms.Flush()
'再转换为一个字符串
Return Convert.ToBase64String(ms.GetBuffer(), 0, ms.Length)
End If
End Function
'TRIPLE DES解密
Public Shared Function DecryptTripleDES(ByVal value As String) As String
If value <> "" Then
Dim cryptoProvider As TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider = _
New TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider()
'从字符串转换为字节组
Dim buffer As Byte() = Convert.FromBase64String(value)
Dim ms As MemoryStream = New MemoryStream(buffer)
Dim cs As CryptoStream = _
New CryptoStream(ms, cryptoProvider.CreateDecryptor(KEY_192, IV_192), _
CryptoStreamMode.Read)
Dim sr As StreamReader = New StreamReader(cs)
Return sr.ReadToEnd()
End If
End Function
End Class
上面我们将一组字节初始化为密钥,并且使用的是数字常量,如果你在实际应用中也这样做,这些字节一定要在0和255之间,这是一个字节允许的范围值。
三、创建一个Cookie的应用类
下面我们就创建一个简单的类,来设置和获取Cookies。
Public Class CookieUtil
'设置COOKIE *****************************************************
'SetTripleDESEncryptedCookie (只针对密钥和Cookie数据)
Public Shared Sub SetTripleDESEncryptedCookie(ByVal key As String, _
ByVal value As String)
key = CryptoUtil.EncryptTripleDES(key)
value = CryptoUtil.EncryptTripleDES(value)
SetCookie(key, value)
End Sub
'SetTripleDESEncryptedCookie (增加了Cookie数据的有效期参数)
Public Shared Sub SetTripleDESEncryptedCookie(ByVal key As String, _
ByVal value As String, ByVal expires As Date)
key = CryptoUtil.EncryptTripleDES(key)
value = CryptoUtil.EncryptTripleDES(value)
SetCookie(key, value, expires)
End Sub
'SetEncryptedCookie(只针对密钥和Cookie数据)
Public Shared Sub SetEncryptedCookie(ByVal key As String, _
ByVal value As String)
key = CryptoUtil.Encrypt(key)
value = CryptoUtil.Encrypt(value)
SetCookie(key, value)
End Sub
'SetEncryptedCookie (增加了Cookie数据的有效期参数)
Public Shared Sub SetEncryptedCookie(ByVal key As String, _
ByVal value As String, ByVal expires As Date)
key = CryptoUtil.Encrypt(key)
value = CryptoUtil.Encrypt(value)
SetCookie(key, value, expires)
End Sub
'SetCookie (只针对密钥和Cookie数据)
Public Shared Sub SetCookie(ByVal key As String, ByVal value As String)
'编码部分
key = HttpContext.Current.Server.UrlEncode(key)
value = HttpContext.Current.Server.UrlEncode(value)
Dim cookie As HttpCookie
cookie = New HttpCookie(key, value)
SetCookie(cookie)
End Sub
'SetCookie(增加了Cookie数据的有效期参数)
Public Shared Sub SetCookie(ByVal key As String, _
ByVal value As String, ByVal expires As Date)
'编码部分
key = HttpContext.Current.Server.UrlEncode(key)
value = HttpContext.Current.Server.UrlEncode(value)
Dim cookie As HttpCookie
cookie = New HttpCookie(key, value)
cookie.Expires = expires
SetCookie(cookie)
End Sub
'SetCookie (只针对HttpCookie)
Public Shared Sub SetCookie(ByVal cookie As HttpCookie)
HttpContext.Current.Response.Cookies.Set(cookie)
End Sub
'获取COOKIE *****************************************************
Public Shared Function GetTripleDESEncryptedCookieValue(ByVal key As String) _
As String
'只对密钥加密
key = CryptoUtil.EncryptTripleDES(key)
'获取Cookie值
Dim value As String
value = GetCookieValue(key)
'解密Cookie值
value = CryptoUtil.DecryptTripleDES(value)
Return value
End Function
Public Shared Function GetEncryptedCookieValue(ByVal key As String) As String
'只对密钥加密
key = CryptoUtil.Encrypt(key)
'获取Cookie值
Dim value As String
value = GetCookieValue(key)
'解密Cookie值
value = CryptoUtil.Decrypt(value)
Return value
End Function
Public Shared Function GetCookie(ByVal key As String) As HttpCookie
'编码密钥
key = HttpContext.Current.Server.UrlEncode(key)
Return HttpContext.Current.Request.Cookies.Get(key)
End Function
Public Shared Function GetCookieValue(ByVal key As String) As String
Try
'编码在GetCookie里完成
'获取Cookie值
Dim value As String
value = GetCookie(key).Value
'解码所存储的值
value = HttpContext.Current.Server.UrlDecode(value)
Return value
Catch
End Try
End Function
End Class
上面的设置功能中,有些功能附加提供了Cookie有效期这个参数。不设置该参数,Cookie将只为浏览器会话才保存在内存中。为了设置永久的Cookie,就需要设置有效期参数。
上面我们对密钥和Cookies值进行了编码与解码,其原因是Cookies与URLs有同样的限制,字符“=”和“;”是保留的,不能使用。这在保存加密后的数据时尤其重要,因为加密算法将添加“=”,按所分配块的大小来填满该数据块。
好了,你会保护Cookies数据了吧?